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Extreme Weather

Extreme Weather and Bible End Time Prophecy

Who is in Control?
And is Net-Zero Carbon Meaningful?

“There will be … dismay among nations, in perplexity at the roaring of the sea and the waves” [ Luke 21 ]

Defining Climate Change and Weather

Climate Change

This is a long-term change in average global or regional weather patterns. Key indicators are increases in global land and ocean temperatures, and increases in the frequency and severity of extreme weather such as hurricanes and cyclones, heatwaves, precipitation and cloud cover. In turn, these changes generate increases in wildfires, droughts, floods, sea levels and ice-loss at the poles.

So what is the evidence of climate change? Considering temperatures, according to NASA, the average global temperature (an average over the entire surface of the planet) has increased by more than 1° Celsius (2° Fahrenheit) since 1880. And two-thirds of the warming has occurred since 1975.


It is normal to distinguish between climate and weather. The difference between the two is the timescale. ‘Weather’ refers to the atmospheric conditions over short periods of time (days), and ‘climate’ refers to atmospheric behaviour over relatively long periods of time (decades or centuries). In other words, ‘weather’ refers to short-term changes in the atmosphere – weather events. As shown below, extreme weather events tend to follow climate change.

Erratic jet stream
Wavy Polar Jet Stream. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Enlarge

Extreme weather events in mid-latitudes are related to the polar jet stream, link. Some climate scientists suspect that climate change (a warming arctic) may be making this jet stream “wavier” and leading to extreme weather in the US and Europe. For instance, when the jet stream dips further south it can lead to intense periods of winter weather.

Conversely, the jet stream may become “stuck” leading to prolonged heat waves or flooding in summer [Mann, Pennsylvania State University]. However, this theory is still under research, link, link.

Recent Extreme Weather Events

When it comes to extreme weather we could refer to reported global natural disasters since these include climatic disasters such as extreme storms, droughts, floods and temperatures. Natural disasters have increased from typically ten/year in the early 20th century to typically 350/year since 2000, linklink. Besides climatic disasters, natural disasters also include landslides, dry mass movements, wildfires, volcanic activity and earthquakes.

EXTREME COST: By 2020 the US had sustained 273 weather and climate disasters since 1980 where overall damages/costs reached or exceeded $1 billion. NOAA claim the total cost of these 273 events exceeds $1.790 trillion, link. Scientists blame ‘an unlucky combination of global warming and freak chance’!

EXTREME WINDS: 2013 will be remembered for apocalyptic weather across the globe. Super typhoon Haiyan hit the eastern Philippines with maximum sustained winds of 195 mph and gusts to 235 mph – one of the most powerful storms ever recorded. Powerful tornadoes carved a path of destruction across the US Midwest, with Washington being hit by winds of up to 200 mph.

EXTREME RAINS: In January 2014 southern Britain saw its wettest winter month on record, and saw its largest wave ever (75 feet)! The highest ever rainfall recorded in UK was in December 2015 at Honister Pass in Lake District with 341.4 mm falling in 24 hours. In July 2021, Zhengzhou (China) had over 550 mm in just 24 hours.

EXTREME DROUGHT: The European Commission Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) warned that the 2022 drought could be the worst in 500 years, potentially reaching 47% of the continent, []

EXTREME HEAT: The Pacific north-west has warmed by about 1.7C in the past 50 years (much more than the global average), and in 2021 this contributed to historic heatwaves in California and parts of Canada. British Columbia reached 46C, Las Vegas reached 47C, Palm Springs reached 49C, and California’s Death Valley reached 53C (although this is lower than the 57C recorded in Furnace Creek in 1913). April 2022 was the third-hottest April India has seen in the past 122 years (1901 to 2022). Such unusual, early heat waves were made 30 times more likely due to the direct impact of climate change, [World Weather Attribution Network (WWAN)]. 

EXTREME COLD: In 2010 the UK had the coldest December for 100 years [UK Met Office]. In 2018 (‘the beast from the east’) thick snow blanketed the UK and brought the average March temperature down a whole seven degrees. Rural areas experienced temperature lows of -12°C. In February 2021 Scotland experienced -23°C, and Texas had rare extreme cold – colder than Alaska!

EXTREME SNOW: In mid-April 2022, a major blizzard dumped feet of snow on North Dakota, USA. The highest snowfall was in south west Montana which received nearly four feet of snow. Forecasters were warning of a “storm of the century”. On Tuesday 12 April the temperature plummeted to 10 degrees Fahrenheit, making it the coldest day in April since 1986.

SUCESSIVE EXTREMES: The UK has seen three extreme Februaries in succession. February 2019 saw a winter heatwave when London reached 21.2 degrees C. February 2020 was the wettest on record in England. February 2021 saw minus 23 degrees C in Scotland and the river Thames froze over for the first time since 1963.

From these few examples we might conclude that global weather catastrophes appear to track global warming.

See also Climate Paradox

Climate, Weather & the Bible

Is the God of the Bible involved? If so, who is in control: man or God? Consider the following:

While the earth remains, seed time and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night shall not cease

Genesis 8:22

It seems that God intended the natural cycle of things (heat and cold) to continue, and nothing special was meant to happen to the climate whilst man is around. Put another way, according to the Bible, any change in the climate would seem to be natural.

For example, there is scientific evidence supporting the view that the observed climate change is partly due to the earth emerging from an ice-age some 4000 years ago. Few realise that the global temperature has been rising at a steady trend rate of 0.5°C per century since the end of the little ice age in the 1700s, link. So much of the 0.8°C rise over the 20th century was to be expected!

Others claim that climate changes are largely a result of natural cycles of cold and warm phases which have been occurring for thousands of years. On a shorter time-scale, some suggest that the effect of natural solar irradiance change on climate cannot be discounted. All this is in stark contrast to the IPCC AR6 2021 Report which claims global warming is largely anthropogenic warming via CO2.

That said, it seems man may well upset what God had planned and God has to intervene via short-term weather events. Historically, the Old Testament appears to refer to God-inflicted short-term weather events rather than to climate change.

God’s Extreme Weather Control in the Past

There are graphic Old Testament examples of God using relatively short weather events as a way of arresting man’s attention. Moreover, Bible prophecy says that He will do it again (see later)! Let’s consider some historical events recorded in the Bible:

Flooding Rain

According to Genesis, when God saw the violence and wickedness of man He was grieved in heart and vowed to destroy all but Noah and his family through a flood:

I will cause it to rain on the earth forty days and forty nights”

Genesis 6:4

There is strong scientific evidence for a cataclysmic worldwide flood. See also Flood mechanism.


As the Israelites wandered in the wilderness on their way to the Promised Land, God gave them the Ten Commandments, together with many sundry laws. He warned Israel to obey them and if they did not then one of the consequences would be drought;

The heaven which is over your head shall be bronze, and the earth which is under you iron. And the Lord will make the rain of your land powder and dust … (Deuteronomy 28:23-24)
If I shut up the heavens so that there is no rain … (2 Chronicles 7:13)

But if they sought God and turned away from their rebellious ways, then God promised to ‘heal their land’ (2 Chronicles 7:14).

And when some Israelites returned from exile in Babylon, they were more interested in making nice houses than in the restoration of God’s house – the desolate temple. As a result, God caused drought, resulting in a lack of produce (Haggai 1:11).

Violent Storms and Hail

The seventh plague of Egypt was severe hail. Because Pharaoh would not let the Israelites go, God said to Pharaoh:

I will send a very heavy hail … and the hail shattered every tree of the field

Exodus 9:18,25

When the kings of the Amorites attacked friends of Israel, Joshua’s army went up to defend them. It is recorded that God helped Israel by throwing large hailstones at the enemy:

… more died from the hailstones than those killed by the sons of Israel

Joshua 10:11

Later, the prophet Ezekiel challenged the false prophets of Israel, saying that God would judge them. The Lord spoke to these false prophets through Ezekiel, saying:

I will make a violent wind break out in My wrath … flooding rain and hailstones …

Ezekiel 13:13

When Jonah tried to ignore God’s instructions by taking a boat trip, God sent ‘a great wind and storm’ (Jonah 1:4) that threatened to destroy the ship. Then, in New Testament times, God reversed the situation and calmed the wind and sea in order to save the disciples:

Jesus rebuked the wind and sea … and the wind died down and it became perfectly calm

Mark 4:39

Darkness and Gloom

The ninth plague of Egypt: when Pharaoh still refused to allow the Israelites to leave Egypt, God said to Moses:

stretch out your hand toward the sky, that there may be darkness over the land … a darkness which may be felt … and there was thick darkness in all the land of Egypt for three days

Exodus 10:21-22

Again, when Ezekiel was in exile in Babylon he challenged Israel to turn from their wicked ways, but he also spoke to the surrounding nations like Assyria and Egypt. He warned Egypt of God’s coming judgement, when clouds and darkness would be used as a way of arresting their attention. We read:

It will be a day of clouds, a time of doom for the nation … all the shining lights in heaven I will darken over you and will set darkness on your land

Ezekiel 30:3, 32:8

From these few examples we are left in little doubt that, in the past, God has used abrupt weather changes or weather events (not long-term climate changes) to arrest man’s attention.

God’s Extreme Weather Control in the Future

The Bible makes it quite clear that there will be a definite end to life as we know it. Earth’s governmental systems, economic and trading systems, animal kingdom, and even geology will all be changed at the Second Coming of Christ. Our current age is coming to a dramatic end as God deals with rebellious nations. And just before these changes, at the very end of this age, it seems God will intervene in Earth’s weather! Extreme weather is part of future events.

God Protects His People, Israel

Occasionally God uses weather events in a beneficial way. He says to Israel:

Whoever assails you will fall … no weapon that is formed against you will prosper

Isaiah 54:15,17

In 2016 some claim God intervened in the Golan Heights to protect Israel from ISIS: “This strange storm of what appears to be dust, cloud and rain did NOT cross the border fence into Israel. It sat like a barrier between ISIS and Israel” [Israel News Online].

Abundant Rain for Israel

In the future, as God brings back His people from the nations and establishes them in their own land, He will also bless their land with the required rains. The wilderness turns green and becomes fruitful with the blessing of the required ‘early’ and ‘latter’ rains (Joel 2:21-27). In Israel the ‘first’ rains usually fall in early November, the ‘latter’ rains in April, corresponding to Autumn and Spring respectively.

Britain certainly has experienced weather extremes over recent decades. Many see Britain as a rebellious, post-Christian nation in danger of judgement, and, as discussed, extreme weather is one form of judgement. See Prophecy over Britain, 2011. But Britain is just one example of how God will use extreme weather events to exact a series of judgements on the Gentile nations! Recall:

For when the earth experiences Your judgements the inhabitants of the world learn righteousness

Isaiah 26:9

Some of these judgements could be short-term weather events (as in the Old Testament), whilst some may be the result of longer-term end-time climate change.

Isaiah’s Future Apocalypse

Prophecies of End-time Climate and Weather

An idea of future changes is described by the prophet Isaiah. Chapters 24-27 of Isaiah are sometimes called ‘Isaiah’s Apocalypse’ since they describe God’s judgement upon the world for its rebellion against God – see the APPENDIX. To reiterate, these are global judgements and they correlate well with the global judgements on the earth described in Revelation. Consider:

Drought and Scorching Heat

One of the judgements predicted by Isaiah appears to be drought:

The earth will be completely laid waste … the earth mourns and withers, the world fades and withers…

Isaiah 24:3-4
extreme weather
Drought wpclipart

In this text, the word “earth” (Heb: “erets”, Strong’s 776) means “the earth at large” i.e. the world, as in Genesis 1. Drought is one of the consequences of disobedience (Deuteronomy 28:23-24)(Zechariah 14:17). Another form of judgement prophesied by Isaiah appears to be extreme heat – heat severe enough to kill people:

Therefore … the inhabitants of the earth are burned, and few men are left

Isaiah 24:6

The book of Revelation appears to speak of the same end time events and predicts extreme weather as part of God’s judgement upon the nations. There will be fierce, scorching heat:

The fourth angel poured out his bowl upon the sun, and it was given to it to scorch men with fire. Men were scorched with fierce heat …

Revelation 16:8-9

Extreme Weather: Storms, Torrential Rain, Snow and Hail

When questioned about the end of the age, Jesus hints at wild weather:

There will be … dismay among nations, in perplexity at the roaring of the sea and the waves

Luke 21:25

The root meaning of the Greek in this verse can mean nothing else but literal sea and literal waves. The word ‘roaring’ comes from the Greek ‘echeo’ meaning ‘to make a loud noise’. Hurricanes and coastal flooding spring to mind.

Torrential rain is also prophesied for the near future:

For the windows from on high are open

Isaiah 24:18, NKJV

Here, the English word “windows” is translated from the Hebrew word “arubbah” (Strong’s 699) which is also translated ‘windows’ or ‘floodgates’ in Genesis 7:11. The term denotes an opening in the atmosphere like a sluice or floodgate. It seems that torrential rain as experienced at the Genesis Flood will also feature at the end of this age as part of God’s judgements on the rebellious nations.

Meanwhile the nations (and specifically the IPCC) attempt to counter such events with their CO2 reduction programme, link.

Weather decides a Middle East War

extreme weather
Damaging 2-inch hail. NOAA

Consider the prophesied Gog-Magog War. At some point in the foreseeable future it seems Russia and Iran, together with other Islamic nations in the Middle East, will invade Israel from the north (see Ezekiel 38-39).

But just as God intervened to release Israel from the grips of Pharaoh, so He will intervene to protect Israel from the invading armies. As with Joshua and the Amorites (see above), the weather plays an important part in their defeat. God uses torrential rain and great hailstones:

I will rain on him (Gog) and on his troops … a torrential rain, with great hailstones …

Ezekiel 38:22

Hail features high on the weather ingredients list at the end of the age. It is part of God’s judgement upon the nations. Besides fierce heat there will be extreme hail and snow storms:

Or have you entered the storehouses of the snow … which I have reserved for the time of distress … (Job 38:22-23)
… and huge hailstones, about one hundred pounds each, came down from heaven upon men … (Revelation 16:8-9,21)

Clearly, God intends to use short-term weather events to influence world affairs in the future. Since there is clear Biblical support for God’s control of past and future weather, it is logical to ask “Is God beginning to speak through the severe weather events seen today? Are the traumatic events now seen across the globe the start of Bible end-time prophecy?”

Now the Big Question:

Is it man, is it natural,

or is it God?

Climate change is hotly debated. Certainly some effects associated with climate change have been observed over the last century (from 1880):

  • The world warmed by about 0.8 degree C
  • Most glaciers retreated
  • Sea level rose about 9 inches (2 or 3mm/year)
  • Water tables fell significantly (China: 1.5m/year, India: 1-3m/year)

But who or what is responsible is another matter: is it anthropological warming (man’s greenhouse-gas emissions) as proposed by the IPCC, or simply natural causes? The consensus is that greenhouse-gas emissions must be reduced to net-zero by 2050 if we are to preserve a liveable climate [UN, 2021]. The UK has made this pledge. But why should the UK commit trillions of pounds for a concept that does not make scientific sense?

Net-Zero Carbon Does Not Make Sense

Also, many eminent scientists take the natural view. For example:

  • Global Sea Surface Temperature correlates well with solar irradiance change (sun spot number)
  • Cloud cover is one of the key factors determining whether we have global warming or global cooling
  • An active sun (as in the last part of the 20th century) means less low clouds and higher temperatures
  • During solar minima the weaker magnetic field allows more cosmic rays to Earth
  • Cosmic rays create aerosols which then seed clouds (so a solar minima means more low clouds)
  • Temperature rise and CO2 increase seem weakly correlated
  • CO2 increase lags temperature increase – sometimes by hundreds of years. CO2 rise is not causal
  • Temperature rise due to anthropogenic CO2 increase seems hard to detect
  • As more and more CO2 is added to the atmosphere the warming effect saturates (‘flat-lines’)
  • All anthropogenic greenhouse sources (not just CO2) contribute only about 0.3% to the Greenhouse Effect (GHE)
  • Glacier retreat commenced some 150 years before sharp CO2 rise
  • Sea levels started rising some 100 years before sharp CO2 rise
  • Global temperature has been rising by about 0.5 degree C per century since the Little Ice Age c1700

Given these observations, some maintain that any sudden climate change observed during the last few decades of the 20th century could be attributed in the main to increased solar activity and the resulting reduced cloud cover. More significantly, some climate scientists claim that the Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) theory itself is seriously flawed and CO2 cannot possibly be the main cause of global warming, link, link, link, link, link, link.

This begs the question: if CO2 increase is not the primary cause of climate change, then what can man do about it?


Given the scientific controversy over the cause of climate change, why not turn to Bible prophecy? Prophecy has serious things to say about future extreme weather events and implies that:
It is God who has final control over the climate and related weather events!
From the Bible we can say with certainty that:
  • God has used the weather to influence nations and individuals in the past
  • Bible prophecy says that God will use severe weather events to ‘speak’ to the nations at the end of this age
  • Prophetic signs and the state of the world suggest the end of this age is imminent

If we are indeed close to the end of this age, then extreme weather events are imminent and are to be expected. God will soon use extreme weather events to speak to, and judge, the nations. Clearly, it is a very effective tool to arrest the world’s attention!

Now the Good News

There is no need to worry! Those who trust in the Lord Jesus (Heb: Yeshua) are eternally safe in the hands of the living God:

For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life (John 3:16)

Moreover, Bible prophecy strongly implies that you do not have to go through the extremes of these end time judgements (the ‘wrath’ of God). The Bible promises all those who put their trust in Jesus will be exempt from ‘the hour of trial that is coming upon the whole world’ (Revelation 3:10). How? Many believe that those who trust in the living Christ will be miraculously rescued from what is coming, just like Noah was rescued before the Flood. Jesus said that at the end of this age:

There shall be two men in the field: one will be taken, and one will be left
Two women will be grinding at the mill: one will be taken, and one will be left (Matthew 24:40-41)

More detail

So don’t delay; Jesus is returning to earth soon. Put your trust in Jesus and receive His peace, forgiveness and security in an insecure world.

See Steps You Must Take



Isaiah chapter 24 states why the earth experiences God’s end-time judgments in the form of extreme weather events. It is because the nations have rejected the God of the Bible (the God of Israel) and His laws for living:

The kings of the earth take their stand, and the rulers conspire together against the LORD and against His Anointed [Christ], saying, “Let’s tear their shackles apart and throw their ropes away from us!”

Psalm 2:2-3

For example, Christianity is rapidly declining in the US and in Europe, and God is totally missing from the EU Constitution. When it comes to the Middle East, Christianity is suffering virtual genocide, and China’s Communist party is intensifying religious persecution, link.

So, as the prophet Isaiah says, at the end of this age:

The earth suffers for the sins of its people, for they have twisted God’s instructions, violated his laws, and broken his everlasting covenant.

Isaiah 24:5, NLT

To take a few specific examples of how man has rebelled:

  • Western faiths now embrace “other gods” as well as the God of Israel, so violating the first of God’s commandments
  • Nations have passed laws permitting abortion on demand (Pro-Choice) but many believe this is breaking the fifth commandment (the killing of an unborn person)
  • The media widely promotes marital infidelity (so violating the sixth and ninth commandments)
  • By law, schools invariably teach evolution as the only truth (biblical creation is seen as mythical)
  • Nations have legalised homosexual acts, and even the church is redefining marriage as “between two persons”, as opposed to the biblical definition of marriage as being between a man and a woman (Genesis 2:24)

So here’s the Paradox:

On the one hand, God has given man the creative ability to improve his lifestyle, as for example in better housing, better food and water supplies, better transport and better medical practice. But, because of man’s greed and selfishness this improvement has often been at the expense of poor nations. In particular, the IPCC claim such lifestyle improvement (essentially industrialisation) has created destructive climate change – global warming!

Assuming global warming is largely CO2 induced (many scientists debate this), the IPCC also claim that it is still within man’s capability to counter the worst effects of global warming. Hence the drive towards clean, renewable energy and the move away from fossil fuels. All this seems very reasonable

But the Bible claims it is really God’s world, not man’s. Genesis 1 says God created the earth and so God controls the weather (see Old Testament examples above). According to the Law of Noncontradiction, we cannot have both man and God having the final say about the weather. It’s either man, or God.

As just explained, the problem is that the nations have rejected the God of the Bible (the God of Israel) and His laws for living (Psalm 2:2-3), and so “The earth suffers for the sins of its people, for they have twisted God’s instructions, violated his laws” (Isaiah 24:5). Sadly, according to Isaiah chapter 24 (and the book of Revelation) it seems that man’s arrogant attempt at climate control will fail – as in drought, extreme heat and torrential Flood-type rain. Even Jesus hinted at violent end-time storms (Luke 21:25).

Paradoxically, it seems man can solve the climate change problem – but only by asking God do it! Only by turning to God in repentance! But world leaders have the arrogance to believe they can solve the extreme weather/climate change problem without God! There is no repentance for rejecting God’s laws and statutes for living. And so the Bible claims they will fail because they are rebelling against God. Watch this space!

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